Introduction to Radar

Course 253

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Summary

This seminar provides an introduction tutorial on basic Radar design, techniques and operational capabilities. It covers a definition of radar, basic radar fundamentals, types of radars, derivation of the radar equation in multiple forms, radar range equation and range ambiguity, minimal detectable range, signal and noise analysis, MDS, clutter, detection process, probability of detection and false alarm, range accuracy and resolution, range and bearing determinations, radar cross section, displays PPI, Moving Target Indicator MTI, blind speeds, multiple pulse MTI radar, Doppler, multipath, basic radar operation, radar directional antennas including AESAs, transmitters, receivers, frequency and bandwidth advantages and applications, group delay, dynamic range, AGC/STC, frequency diversity, radar path budget, PRI/PRF, , two-way channel losses including free-space loss and examples, and radar pulse shaping. Also included are techniques to use radar systems for communications using PPM and other modulation. In addition, direction finding DF using radar is discussed along with SATCOM radars and frequencies. In addition, several examples and step processes are discussed to determine the optimal solutions and tradeoffs between the many cognitive capabilities.

Learning objectives

Upon completing the course you will be able to:

  • Understand the concepts and definition of basic radar design.
  • Become familiar with techniques to improve radar performance in the presence of clutter
  • Learn how to develop the radar equation, and all of its derivatives.
  • Evaluate the Probability of Detect compared to the Probability of False Alarm and how to determine the threshold level including tradeoffs.
  • Learn how to use radar to provide long distance communications for broadcast messages LOS connections.
  • Discover how to use multiple radars in a combined system to mitigate blind speeds and other anomalies.
  • Learn how Moving Target Indicator MTI radar eliminates large stationary targets and detect small moving targets. Also learn what system problems that are inherent in radars and learn how to mitigate or reduce the problems.
  • Understand the hardware that makes up a radar system and learn to determine the optimal solutions.
  • Learn how radar can be used for a 3-dimensional direction finding system with two separate radar receive antennas.

Target Audience

This course will be of interest to RF, analog, digital, systems and software engineers and managers who are interested in learning more about the basic functionality of radar and learning how to evaluate and improve the detection process. This applies to both those that want to gain an understanding of basic radar and those that are experienced engineers that want a better understanding of radar.

Outline

Day 1

Definition and history of radar
Pulse radar including modulation
Basic two-way channel analysis
Develop the Radar equation and its derivatives and show how it is used
Range determination, calculation, ambiguities, resolution, and minimum detectable range
Bearing determination including accuracy and resolution
Displays and how they indicate the targets both PPI and A-scope
Basic radar operation

Day 2

Directional antenna gain, types including AESAs, reflector configurations, and examples
Antenna capabilities including electronic steerable arrays.
Frequency diversity radars and antennas
Radar transmitter and hardware designs and configurations
Radar Pulse shaping, advantages and disadvantages, types of shaping used
Radar receiver and hardware designs and configurations
Probability of Detection and False Alarms
Determining the frequency of operation, advantage and disadvantages and their applications

Day 3

Group Delay definitions and mitigations, Aliasing definitions and mitigations
Dynamic Range and AGC with control theory to guarantee stability and how to measure it
Moving Target Indicator MTI design and improvements and Multiple pulse radars to mitigate blind speeds
Doppler effects, Doppler and Tracking radars, Pulse Theory
How to use Radars for communications using pulse position modulations and others
Types of Multipath, techniques to reduce multipath for radar applications
Satellite Radar, frequencies, and types of satellites, antennas and feeds
Three-dimensional radar interferometer for direction finding