RF and Wireless Transceiver Design & Evaluation Techniques

Course 199

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Summary

This 5-day course provides technical professionals with the design concepts and development tools required to architect RF transceivers for most wireless applications. The course is intended for working engineers that are in the design, test or support phase of new transceiver technology.. Also, Critical system specifications will be discussed based on worldwide standards and an in-depth review of transceiver configurations will be evaluated. The use of RF simulation tools will be used to show design concepts and the trade-offs between modulation techniques and RF performance. RF air interface requirements and specifications will be presented for various wireless standards including LTE and systems like GPS, Bluetooth, 802.11, wideband CDMA, EDGE and others. Radio architectures based on digital modulation techniques like OFDM, OFDMA, SC-FDMA, QAM, BPSK, QPSK, GSM, 8PSK, GFSK will be analyzed using simulation tools and design examples.

Transmitter architectures and designs will be shown and include discussions on power control, modulation schemes, and linearization techniques. Various receiver architectures including zero IF, low IF and superhetrodyne, multifunction and software defined radio are described with design examples. Receiver nonlinearities and dynamic noise performance will be modeled to show system limitations.

Designs of the latest architectures including 4G LTE transceivers will be presented with class participation using the lasted CAD design tools. Finally, transceiver test and troubleshooting procedures from RF to baseband will be described. Students are encouraged to bring their laptop computers to class.

Learning objectives

Upon completing the course you will be able to:

  • Describe common wireless standards and their impact on RF transceiver architectures
  • Analyze physical layer radio specifications for WCDMA, LTE, Bluetooth and 802.11
  • Describe major digital modulation schemes and their relationship to RF transceiver designs
  • Analyze transmitter Architectures and linearization techniques
  • Describe common types of receivers and their components
  • Understand the overall end-to-end network archicetures for 3GPP technologies.
  • Analyze typical performance parameters, and accompanying limitations
  • Learn how to architect a receiver to meet requirements
  • Evaluate modern system architectures including multifunction/multi-standard types including the software defined radio
  • Test, and troubleshoot complex radio system from RF to baseband

Target Audience

Component designers, test engineers, system designers, managers and technicians with an RF background will benefit from this course. Students should bring a notebook computer to class.

Outline

Day One

Wireless Specifications
 • Specifications: LTE, WiMAX, and others • UMTS Evolution from WCDMA to LTE • 3GPP Physical layer standards • Defining Quality of Service(QoS) Classes • Categories of data transmission • Performance Goals • Air Interface Concepts • The Open Systems Interconnection(OSI) reference model • Spectrum Options and Migration Plans • Spectrum deployed for TDD mode and FDD mode • The future of Mobile Broadband-Beyond LTE
RF System Requirements and Architectures
 • Digital modulation schemes - BPSK, QPSK ,GFSK, GSM, OFDM, QAM • Multiple access techniques - OFDMA, SC-FDMA • Phase lock Loop analysis - Phase noise, loop bandwidth for optimum noise performance, PLL designs • Up-down converters - conversion gain/loss, noise figure, port-port isolation, nonlinearity effects • Amplifiers - Classes of operation, small signal parameters, large signal parameters, dynamic range • Filters - types , Amplitude/Phase distortion, band pass response • Digital signal-to-noise ratios (Eb/No) for different modulation schemes • Signal-to inference ratios (SIR)

Day Two

Receiver Architecture and System Design
 • Receiver block diagrams • Important receiver parameters - Sensitivity - Minimum Detectable Signal (MDS) - Dynamic range (IP2 & IP3) - Spurious free dynamic range - System noise figure - Wideband receiver performance in terms of BLER and BER • Receiver types - zero IF - low IF - Superheterodyne • A/D considerations • Receiver elements description with typical performance • Receiver demodulation techniques for various systems • IF frequency selection for spurious free operation • Filtering and shielding • CAD and evaluation of complete receiver types • Evaluating trade-offs - Desensitization Vs QoS - Intermodulation distortion Vs power control - Multipath fading Vs BLER

Day Three

Transmitter Architecture and System Design
 • Transmitter nonlinearities and distortion - harmonic/intermodulation distortion - AM/AM – AM/PM - ACLP - EVM • Transmitter noise and filtering • Transmitter power devices • Efficiency enhancing techniques - voltage, current, load line modulation • Transmitter distortion reduction • Transmitter architecture design examples for 4G LTE
Physical layer Power Control Architectures
 • WCDMA • HSPA, Enhanced Link and LTE Power requirements • Uplink power control • RACH • Algorithms for processing TPC commands • Reed-Miller encoded PCC bits • Open Loop power control • Closed loop power control • Inner loop power control • Outer loop power control • Digital /Analog gain partitioning • Subcarrier power mapping

Day Four

Multifunction Transceiver Architecture and Design
 • Link budget design • Commercially available transceiver elements and their specifications • Complete system design and architecture - LTE, WiMAX, and others • Multifunction transceiver design and examples • Software defined radio

Day Five

System Test and Evaluation
 • Transmitter in-channel measurements - channel bandwidth - carrier frequency - channel power - sub-channel power - occupied bandwidth - peak-to-average power ratio - peak power - EVM - phase/frequency error • Transmitter out-of-band measurements - spurious - harmonics • Factors affecting transmitter impairments - compression - incorrect filter coefficient - LO phase noise - I/Q amplitude/phase imbalance • Receiver in-channel measurements - Signal to Interference ratio - Sensitivity at specified BLER - co-channel rejection - intermodulation distortion - dynamic range