Digital Mobile and Wireless Communications - Radio Interface for 4G/LTE, IMT-Advanced, 5G

Course 016

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Summary

The goal of this course is to introduce the participant to those digital modulation methods, coding techniques, space, time and frequency diversity techniques and multiple access techniques presently in use or being considered for use in mobile wireless and/or broadband wireless communication systems (many of these techniques are also used in satellite, wireline, and power-line communications).

4G-LTE- Fourth Generation systems based on OFDMA have been in commercial use for some time. Now industry is moving toward the standard for 5G, Fifth Generation Systems. We will discuss some concepts being considered for 5G including HetNets and FTN "Faster Than Nyquist Signaling"

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) techniques are used in almost all of the new broadband wireless and mobile wireless access systems, e.g., 3G-LTE, 4G-LTE, 5G, IEEE802.11a,g and n (Wi-Fi), Wi-Gig (60 GHz), IEEE 802.16e (Wi-Max and "Mobile" Wi-Max), the WiMedia Alliance, IEEE 802.15 and IEEE 802.22 Standard.

The OFDM techniques consist of OFDM, OFDMA, and SC-FDMA. These systems use MIMO and advanced coding concepts, as well carrier aggregation techniques to improve performance. We will cover all of these topics during the course. We will also describe relatively new concepts such as massive MIMO. We will discuss the very important DMT implementation of the OFDM modulations.

We will also study the modulations and multiple access techniques (including CDMA and WCDMA) in use in present Second and Third-Generation systems including the (UMTS) IMT-2000 Third Generation Mobile Systems.

In addition to the OFDM-based modulations mentioned above, we will discuss QAM, QPSK, MPSK, PAM and continuous phase modulations (CPM), e.g., GMSK. All of these modulations are being used in wireless, satellite and wireline communication systems.

We will devote much time to the subject of MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) antenna systems. This technique has been introduced in modern broadband wireless communications. We will also describe some recent ideas such as massive MIMO.

As previously mentioned, we will discuss the coding techniques used in the mobile/wireless broadband systems, including convolutional coding, turbo-coding and iterative decoding techniques. The idea of combining MIMO antenna arrays with OFDM, and coding, is an attractive idea for present and future broadband and mobile wireless systems.

In addition to all of the above, we will also devote time to a discussion of the bounds, or limits, on communications based on Shannon’s Information Theory. It is Shannon’s work, which has led to breakthroughs in coding, OFDM (multitone) communications, MIMO and much more.

At the end of the course, we will also describe the now classic multiple access techniques, e.g., CDMA, WCDMA, FDMA, and TDMA, used in the physical or radio interfaces of mobile wireless and broadband wireless systems. We will include a discussion of the radio interfaces of IS-95 and WCDMA, including topics such as Walsh codes and OVSF codes, the RAKE receiver, pseudo-random sequences, intra-cell and intercell interference, Gold codes and synchronization techniques.

Learning objectives

Upon completing the course you will be able to:

  • Understand multiple access techniques such as OFDMA, the multiple access technique used in broadband wireless access, 4G/LTE and 5G mobile systems.
  • Understand MIMO, Massive MIMO, and MU-MIMO concepts and how they are used to greatly improve bandwidth efficiency for wireless communications.
  • Analyze new techniques to improve communications efficiency, such as adaptive modulation and coding techniques, OFDM, space-time coding and iterative techniques.
  • Evaluate the performance of modulations on channels with Rayleigh fading, and the diversity techniques used to overcome degradation caused by fading.
  • Analyze different modulations and multiple access techniques, on the basis of detectability, bandwidth and complexity of implementation
  • Understand constant envelope CPM modulations such as GMSK, used in the GSM, GPRS, Bluetooth, and EDGE systems.
  • describe the latest and future commercial wireless systems and understand the underlying technologies that have been selected to implement them.

Target Audience

This course will be of interest to hardware, software and systems engineers who are entering the field of communication systems, or experienced engineers who are not familiar with modern modulations and concepts. The course participant should have some familiarity with the Fourier Transform and the topic of probability. An electrical engineering background (BSEE or equivalent practical experience) is recommended.

Outline

Day One

Introduction - A "Bit" of History
 • Brief Review of Wireless Communications Concepts • Cellular Concept-Femtocells • Frequency Reuse
The Fading Channel
 • Multipath Rayleigh Fading • Delay Spread • Frequency Selective Fading • Introduction to Diversity Techniques
Brief Review of Important Concepts
 • Fourier transform • Probability • Power spectral density • White Gaussian noise
Introduction to Analog and Digital Modulations

Day Two

Nyquist Baseband Signaling
 • Raised-Cosine Filters • Optimum Filtering-Square-Root Nyquist Filters • Linear Equalization • Decision Feedback Equalization-Introduction • Duobinary Signaling • Partial Response Signals
Modulations and Performance
 • Modulation Definitions - BPSK - QPSK - MPSK - QAM - BFSK - MFSK • Optimum Detection of Binary Signals • The Optimum Detector • Matched Filter
BPSK and BFSK Modulations
 • Spectra, Detectability, Synchronization • Optimum FSK
Performance of Modulations on Rayleigh Fading Channels
 • BER Performance-No diversity-SISO • Classic Antenna Diversity-SIMO • Detectability Performance for SIMO
Multiple-Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Antenna Diversity
 • MIMO Concept • BLAST Concept • Massive MIMO • Beam-Forming Techniques
MSK-type Signals
 • QPSK, SQPSK, pi/4-QPSK • MSK, SFSK • Adjacent Channel Crosstalk • ACI Cancellation Techniques
M-ary Signals
 • Optimum Detection • MPSK, QAM, MFSK • Nyquist Modulating Signals
Information Theory
 • A brief review of important results • Shannon Capacity • Why code? • Multitone Concept • Discrete Multitone (DMT) Implementation

Day Three

OFDM
 • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing-OFDM-What is it? • Why do we use OFDM? • Adaptive Modulation and Coding Techniques • OFDMA (and Scalable OFDMA) as a multiple access technique • OFDM-MIMO (BLAST) • OFDM-UWB-WiMedia Standard-Radio Interface • IMT - Advanced 4G Radio Interface
Radio Interfaces of a Number of Systems
 • Radio Interface-IEEE802.11a,n (Wi-Fi) • Radio Interface-3G-LTE and 4G-LTE (IMT-Advanced) • Radio Interface- Wi-Gig (60 GHz) • Radio Interface of IEEE 802.16e- (Wi-Max and Mobile Wi-Max) (Optional topic) • SC-FDMA (Single Carrier FDMA)-3G-LTE and 4G-LTE • Carrier Aggregation for 4G-LTE • MIMO in 4G-LTE • New Ideas for 5G-LTE-HetNets, MU-MIMO

Coding Techniques

Block Coding
 • Interleaving for the Fading Channel • Performance with coding and interleaving
Viterbi Algorithm and Trellis Coding
 • Viterbi Algorithm- What is it? • Trellis (Ungerboeck) Coding • Performance Gains • Interleaving for Fading Channels • Performance on a Rayleigh Fading Channel - Viterbi Equalizer (GSM)
Convolutional Coding
 • Performance on the Fading Channel

Day Four

Turbo-coding- Iterative Decoding Concepts
 • Turbo-Coding –What is it? • Interative Decoding • Iterative Decoding Combined with… - Equalization - OFDM - Space and Antenna Diversity - CPM • OFDM, MIMO and Coding • Introduction to LDPC Codes
Information Theory Bounds on Fading Channels
 • Capacity for MIMO, MISO, SIMO and SISO Systems
Space-Time Coding
 • Alamouti Coding • MIMO-OFDM-Coding
"Faster Than Nyquist" FTN Signaling
 • Detectability Performance of FTN • FTN combined with coding
Multi-user Diversity
Continuous Phase Modulations (CPM)
 • TFM, GTFM, GMSK (GSM, DCS, DECT, Bluetooth) • CPM, Coding and Iterative Decoding
Adjacent Channel Interference
Non-coherent Detection
 • DPSK
The FM Receiver (DECT, Bluetooth)
 • FSK • CPM signals

Day Five

CDMA, WCDMA
 • The Concepts - RAKE Receiver - Pseudo-Random Sequences - Power Control - Intra and Intercell Interference - Capacity
IS-95 Radio Interface (1 x EV or IS- 856)
 • Walsh Functions • Pseudo-Random Sequences • RAKE Receiver
IMT-2000 WCDMA System Radio Interface (FDD, TDD) Standards
 • OVSF Functions, Gold Codes • EDGE
Cellular Communications-Radio Interface of Classic 2G Systems
 • Introduction • Multiple Access Techniques - FDMA - TDMA - CDMA • TDMA - GSM (GPRS) - IS-136
UWB-Ultra-Wideband Radio-Impulse Radio (Optional topic)
Summary and the Future